This Weeks Postings

Upcoming Posts

  • All Penny Hill Press Sites

All Penny Hill Press Sites


Penny Hill Press updates CRS products on a daily basis. These products include the following sites:

Abstracts of CRS Reports with 60k+ repor view full post » […]




Revenue Estimate Request – M-052314

This memorandum is in response to your request for revenue estimates of two proposals to limit the ability of U.S. domestic entities to invert. Your first proposal is a permanent version, and your second proposal is a temporary two-year proposal

view full post » […]

Overview of the Credit Rating Agencies and their Regulation – M-051509

As you requested, this briefing memorandum provides an overview of the credit rating agencies through an examination of the following: (1) background on rating agencies and the genesis of the issuer-pays business model; (2) the Nationally Recogn

view full post » […]

The Student Loan Refinancing Act: Calculation Showing Changes in Loan Payment Amounts for the Borrower Case – M-050614

This memorandum presents calculations showing how the amounts paid by borrowers of federal student loans made through the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan program1 might be affected by the

view full post » […]

Distribution of Medicare Advantage and Medicare Fee-for-Service Enrollment for Beneficiaries in the Community by Race/Ethnicity and Income – M-050214

You requested a memorandum that compared the distribution of enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) for beneficiaries residing in the community by race/ethnicity and by income. This memorandum provides

view full post » […]

Explanation and Illustration of the Johnson-Crapo GSE Reform Proposal – M-040714

This memorandum was prepared to enable distribution to more than one congressional office. It describes the existing government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) securitization component of the housing finance system and the changes proposed by the Joh

view full post » […]

Retroactive Advance Premium Tax Credits Under February 27, 2014, CCIIO Bulletin – M-031414

This memorandum responds to your request for a legal analysis of a February 27, 2014, bulletin from the Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight (CCIIO) describing the availability of retroactive advance premium tax cred

view full post » […]

EPA Grants to Members of Selected EPA Advisory Committees – M-031213

This memorandum responds to your request for information about current and past grants from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to members of the following two federal advisory committees that serve the EPA:

Clean Air view full post » […]

Tax Policy and Gasoline Prices – M-030811

This memorandum is written in response to your request for an analysis of the extent to which proposed tax changes on the oil industry are likely to affect domestic gasoline prices. The specific tax proposals that you requested be considered are

view full post » […]

Funding of Risk Corridor Payments Under ACA § 1342 – M-012314

This memorandum responds to your request for an analysis of the following two questions concerning the funding of the risk corridor program under § 1342 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): 

view full post » […]

Answers to Questions on P.L. 111-347, the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 – M-012011

This memorandum provides answers to the questions on P.L. 111-347, the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, that you submitted to the Congressional Research Service (CRS) on January 12, 2010 and January 14, 2010. Eac

view full post » […]

The Federal Grand Jury – 95-1135

The federal grand jury exists to investigate crimes against the United States and to secure the constitutional right of grand jury indictment. Its responsibilities require broad powers. 

As an arm of the United States District

view full post » […]

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – 95-1013

An uprising against Bahrain’s Al Khalifa royal family that began on February 14, 2011, has not achieved the goals of Shiite oppositionists to establish a constitutional monarchy. Public unrest has diminished since 2012, but occas

view full post » […]

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy – RS21852

The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in the course of the current U.S.-led effort against the Islamic State organization. Under a 1994 U.S.-UAE de

view full post » […]

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RS20643

CVN-78, CVN-79, and CVN-80 are the first three ships in the Navy’s new Gerald R. Ford (CVN- 78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs). The Navy’s proposed FY2016 budget requests procurement or advance procuremen

view full post » […]

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress – RL34391

The Coast Guard’s FY2013 budget initiated a new project for the design and construction of a new polar icebreaker, but the timing and execution of this project have become uncertain. The project received $7.609 million in FY2013,

view full post » […]

Veterans and Homelessness – RL34024

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan brought renewed attention to the needs of veterans, including the needs of homeless veterans. Researchers have found both male and female veterans to be overrepresented in the homeless population, and,

view full post » […]

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33741

The Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The first LCS was funded in FY2005, and a total of 23 have been funded through FY2015. The Navy’s proposed FY2016 budget re

view full post » […]

Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress – RL33512

The nation’s air, land, and marine transportation systems are designed for accessibility and efficiency, two characteristics that make them highly vulnerable to terrorist attack. While hardening the transportation sector from ter

view full post » […]

Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups – RL33313

Over the past several decades, Congress, by statute, has established a wide array of commissions, boards, and advisory bodies to provide it with assistance in meeting various legislative, investigative, and administrative responsibilit

view full post » […]

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress – RL33153

China is building a modern and regionally powerful Navy with a modest but growing capability for conducting operations beyond China’s near-seas region. The question of how the United States should respond to China’s militar

view full post » […]

The United Kingdom: Background and Relations with the United States – RL33105

Many U.S. officials and Members of Congress view the United Kingdom (UK) as the United States’ closest and most reliable ally. This perception stems from a combination of factors, including a sense of shared history, values, and

view full post » […]

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32665

The Navy’s proposed FY2016 budget requests funding for the procurement of nine new battle force ships (i.e., ships that count against the Navy’s goal for achieving and maintaining a fleet of 308 ships). The nine shi

view full post » […]

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32418

The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2016 are to be the 23rd and 24th boats in the class. The 10 Virginia-class

view full post » […]

Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32109

The Navy has been procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class Aegis destroyers since FY1985. The two DDG-51 class ships requested for procurement in FY2016 are to be the 73rd and 74th ships in the class. The 10 DDG-51s programmed for procur

view full post » […]

Energy and Water Development: FY2016 Appropriations – R43966

The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill provides funding for Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) civil works projects, the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and the Department of Energy (D

view full post » […]

Domestic Drones and Privacy: A Primer – R43965

It has been three years since Congress enacted the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FMRA), calling for the integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), or “drones,” into the national airspace by September 2015.

view full post » […]

Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43964

This report examines human rights issues in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), including recent developments, ongoing rights abuses, and legal reforms. Major events of the past year include a continuing clampdown on political

view full post » […]

DOE’s Office of Science and the FY2016 Budget Request – R43963

The Department of Energy’s Office of Science conducts basic research in six overarching program areas: advanced scientific computing research, basic energy sciences, biological and environmental research, fusion energy sciences,

view full post » […]

Social Security and Same-Sex Marriage: Frequently Asked Questions – R43961

In United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court held that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional, finding, in part, that it violated the Constitution’s equal protection and substantive d

view full post » […]

Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention – R43960

This report provides material on the latest crisis in Yemen and the U.S. policy response. For further background and analysis on Yemen, see CRS Report RL34170, […]

Status of the Federal Perkins Loan Program: Frequently Asked Questions – R43959

The Federal Perkins Loan program authorizes the allocation of federal funds to institutions of higher education to assist them in capitalizing revolving loan funds for the purpose of making low-interest loans to students with exception

view full post » […]

Health Care-Related Expiring Provisions, First Session of the 114th Congress – R43958

This report provides a list of selected health-related programs and activities under specified titles of the Social Security Act (SSA), including the Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant (Title V), General Provisions, Peer Re

view full post » […]

Sudan – R43957

Congress has played an active role in U.S. policy toward Sudan for more than three decades. Efforts to support an end to the country’s myriad conflicts and human rights abuses have dominated the agenda by area, as have counterter

view full post » […]

The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA): Compensation Related to Exposure to Radiation from Atomic Weapons Testing and Uranium Mining – R43956

The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) provides one-time benefit payments to persons who may have developed cancer or other specified diseases after being exposed to radiation from atomic weapons testing or uranium mining, mill

view full post » […]

Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism: In Brief – R43955

Recent incidents have highlighted the lack of consensus internationally on what defines a cyberattack, an act of war in cyberspace, or cyberterrorism. Cyberwar is typically conceptualized as state-on-state action equivalent to an armed

view full post » […]

Federal Involvement in Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Overview and Issues for Congress, In Brief – R43954

The federal government plays a role in the management of sex offenders. In a law enforcement capacity, it enforces federal laws involving sexual abuse, online predatory offenses, or other related federal crimes. In addition, Congress h

view full post » […]

2013 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas – R43953

On January 15, 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule designating areas for compliance with the primary annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) a

view full post » […]

Seventh Summit of the Americas: In Brief – R43952

On April 10-11, 2015, President Obama is scheduled to attend the seventh Summit of the Americas in Panama City, Panama. The Summits of the Americas, which have been held roughly every three years since 1994, serve as opportunities for

view full post » […]

Membership of the 114th Congress: A Profile – R43869

This report presents a profile of the membership of the 114th Congress (2015-2016). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, le

view full post » […]

Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015 – R43751

Congress currently appropriates foreign affairs funding through annual Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations.1 Prior to FY2008, however, Congress provided funds for the Department of State and int

view full post » […]

Export-Import Bank: Overview and Reauthorization Issues – R43581

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank or the Bank), a wholly owned U.S. government corporation, is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States. Its mission is to assist in the financing of U.S. export

view full post » […]

Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress – R43546

The TAO(X) oiler shipbuilding program is a program to build a new class of 17 fleet oilers for the Navy. The primary role of Navy fleet oilers is to transfer fuel to Navy surface ships that are operating at sea, so as to extend the ope

view full post » […]

Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress – R43543

The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. LX(R)s are to replace 12 aging Whidbey Island/Harpers Ferry (LSD-41/49) class amphibious ship

view full post » […]

The Budget Control Act of 2011: Legislative Changes to the Law and Their Budgetary Effects – R43411

Following a lengthy debate over raising the debt limit, the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) was signed into law by President Obama on August 2, 2011. In addition to including a mechanism to increase the debt limit, the BC

view full post » […]

The Debt Limit Since 2011 – R43389

The Constitution grants Congress the power to borrow money on the credit of the United States— one part of its power of the purse—and thus mandates that Congress exercise control over federal debt. Control of debt policy ha

view full post » […]

The Indian Health Service (IHS): An Overview – R43330

The IHS provides an array of medical services, including inpatient, ambulatory, emergency, dental, public health nursing, and preventive health care. The IHS does not have a defined medical benefit package that includes or excludes spe

view full post » […]

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions – R43215

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) has numerous provisions affecting private health insurance and public health coverage programs. This report provides resources to help congressional staff r

view full post » […]

An Overview of Air Quality Issues in Natural Gas Systems – R42986

Natural Gas Systems and Air Pollution 

Congressional interest in U.S. energy policy has focused in part on ways through which the United States could secure more economical and reliable fossil fuel resources

view full post » […]

Peace Talks in Colombia – R42982

In August 2012, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announced that the government was engaged in exploratory peace talks with the violent leftist insurgent group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), in a bid to resolv

view full post » […]

Funding and Financing Highways and Public Transportation – R42877

Federal surface transportation programs are currently funded primarily through taxes on motor fuels that are deposited in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). Although there has been some modification to the tax system, the tax rates, which a

view full post » […]