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Penny Hill Press updates CRS products on a daily basis. These products include the following sites:

Abstracts of CRS Reports with 60k+ reports: Executive summaries of CRS Reports with 12k+ reports: CRS Legal Sidebars (“Nota Bene”): CRS In Sights Reports: CRS In Focus Reports: […]



Those who subscribe to our FREE DAILY REPORT receive titles and summaries of just-released CRS reports every Monday through Friday while sipping their first morning cup of coffee. Use the Subscribe tab ( or eMail to subscribe to be added to the Daily Report mailing list. For those […]

Economic Recovery and Jobs: CRS Experts – R40922

The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to economic recovery and job losses, preservation, and creation. Policy areas identified include factors shaping the pace of the recovery, fiscal measures, mortgage market support, and bank regulatory issues.

Date of Report: November 4, 2014 Pages: 2 Order […]

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling – RS22955

Most retail food stores are now required to inform consumers about the country of origin of fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, shellfish, peanuts, pecans, macadamia nuts, ginseng, and ground and muscle cuts of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and goat. The rules are required by the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) as amended by the 2008 […]

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer – RS22937

In order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states, it must conclude a framework agreement that meets specific requirements under Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The AEA also provides for export control licensing procedures and criteria for terminating cooperation. Congressional review is required for Section 123 […]

An Introduction to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit – RS22389

The low-income housing tax credit (LIHTC) program is one of the federal government’s primary policy tools for encouraging the development and rehabilitation of affordable rental housing. These non-refundable federal housing tax credits are awarded to developers of qualified rental projects via a competitive application process administered by state housing finance authorities. Developers typically sell their […]

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics – RS22380

The Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to (1) reduce public expenditures for welfare recipients by obtaining ongoing support from noncustodial parents that could reimburse the state and federal governments for part of their expenses (i.e., welfare cost-recovery) and (2) help […]

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance – RS21922

The capacity, transparency, legitimacy, and cohesiveness of Afghan governance are crucial to Afghan stability as U.S.-led NATO forces exit Afghanistan by 2016. The size and capability of the Afghan governing structure has increased significantly since the Taliban regime fell in late 2001. But, the government remains rife with corruption and ethnic and political tensions among […]

Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – RS21534

The Sultanate of Oman has been a strategic ally of the United States for several decades. In 1980, partly in response to the Islamic Revolution in Iran that overthrew the Shah, Oman became the first Persian Gulf state to sign a formal agreement with the United States allowing U.S. use of its military facilities, despite […]

Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy – RL33964

The U.S. government considers its relationship with Nigeria, Africa’s largest producer of oil and its largest economy, to be among the most important on the continent. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country, with almost 180 million people, roughly divided between Muslims and Christians. U.S. diplomatic relations with Nigeria have improved since the country made the […]

Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA’s Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs – RL33656

In October 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulation to revise a 2003 Clean Water Act rule governing waste discharges from large confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The 2008 action was necessitated by a 2005 federal court decision (Waterkeeper Alliance et al. vs. EPA, 399 F.3d 486 (2nd Cir. 2005)), resulting from challenges […]

Clean Air Permitting: Implementation and Issues – RL33632

The 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments required major industrial sources of air pollutants to obtain operating permits. These permits, authorized in Title V of the act, are intended to enhance environmental compliance by detailing for each covered facility all of the emission control requirements to which it is subject. Title V also was intended […]

Wetlands: An Overview of Issues – RL33483

Recent Congresses have considered numerous policy topics that involve wetlands. Many reflect issues of long-standing interest, such as applying federal regulations on private lands, wetland loss rates, and restoration and creation accomplishments.

The issue receiving the greatest attention recently has been determining which wetlands should be included and excluded from requirements of the Clean Water […]

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases – RL31967

Congress has always restricted federal debt. The Second Liberty Bond Act of 1917 included an aggregate limit on federal debt as well as limits on specific debt issues. Through the 1920s and 1930s, Congress altered the form of those restrictions to give the U.S. Treasury more flexibility in debt management and to allow modernization of […]

Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances: Current Law, Legislative Proposals in the 113th Congress, and Economic Effects – RL31852

Expensing is the most accelerated form of depreciation for tax purposes. Section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code allows a taxpayer to expense (or deduct as a current expense rather than as a capital expense) up to $25,000 of the total cost of new and used qualified depreciable assets it buys and places in service […]

Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations – RL31718

Qatar, a small peninsular country in the Persian Gulf, emerged as a partner of the United States in the mid-1990s and currently serves as host to major U.S. military facilities. Qatar holds the thirdlargest proven natural gas reserves in the world, and is the largest exporter of liquefied natural gas. Its small citizenry enjoys the […]

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 113th Congress – RL31181

Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth, and research and development (R&D) serves as the lifeblood of innovation. The federal government encourages businesses to invest more in R&D than they otherwise would in several ways, including a tax credit for increases in spending on qualified research above a base amount.

This report […]

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions – RL30354

The Federal Reserve (the Fed) defines monetary policy as its actions to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Because the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and economic growth, monetary policy can also be defined to include the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Fed that […]

Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2014: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress – RL30261

One hundred two women currently serve in the 113th Congress: 82 in the House (63 Democrats and 19 Republicans) and 20 in the Senate (16 Democrats and 4 Republicans). One hundred one women were initially sworn in to the 113th Congress, one female Republican House Member has since resigned, and two Democratic House Members have […]

The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002: Background and Implementation – R43781

The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 (TPA) is a core legislative measure guiding U.S. policy toward Tibet. Its stated purpose is “to support the aspirations of the Tibetan people to safeguard their distinct identity.” Among other provisions, the TPA establishes in statute the State Department position of Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues and defines the […]

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions – R43780

Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal government contracts after reincorporating overseas have prompted questions about current and proposed restrictions on contracting with “inverted domestic corporations.” These questions are shaped, in part, by the broader debate over whether such corporations are to be seen as “deserters,” who change their corporate citizenship to avoid […]

Child Support Enforcement and the Hague Convention on Recovery of International Child Support – R43779

The Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance (the Convention) was adopted at the Hague Conference on Private International Law on November 23, 2007. The Convention contains procedures for processing international child support cases that are intended to be uniform, simple, efficient, accessible, and cost-free to U.S. […]