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Penny Hill Press updates CRS products on a daily basis. These products include the following sites:

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Legislative Procedure in Congress: Basic Sources for Congressional Staff – RS21363

Written for congressional staff, this report identifies and provides details on how to obtain official government sources of information on the legislative process and the rules and procedure of the House and Senate. It provides referenc

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Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress – RS22478

Names for Navy ships traditionally have been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy, under the direction of the President and in accordance with rules prescribed by Congress. Rules for giving certain types of names to certain types of

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Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues – RS21977

The federal government provides credit assistance to farmers to help assure adequate and reliable lending in rural areas, particularly for farmers who cannot obtain loans elsewhere. Federal farm loan programs also target credit to beginning farm

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Iran Sanctions – RS20871

Broad international sanctions imposed on Iran during 2010-2013 harmed

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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2015 – RS20792

This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways t

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Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RS20643

CVN-78, CVN-79, and […]

Veterans and Homelessness – RL34024

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan brought renewed attention to the needs of veterans, including the needs of homeless veterans. Researchers have found both male and female veterans to be overrepresented in the homeless population, and, as the num

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U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy: Frequently Asked Questions – RL33944

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative and oversight authority. There are a number of major trade issues that are currently the focus of Congress. For example, bills were introduced in the

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Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33741

The Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship […]

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program – RL33644

The federal government provides grants for voluntary family planning services through the Family Planning Progra

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U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues – RL33640

Even though the United States plans to reduce the number of warheads deployed on its long-range missiles and bombers, consistent with the terms of the […]

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32665

The Navy’s proposed FY2016 budget requests funding for the procurement of nine new battle force ships (i.e., ships that count against the Navy’s goal for achieving and maintaining a fleet of 308 ships). The nine ships include two

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Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32418

The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two

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Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32109

The Navy has been procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class Aegis destroyers since FY1985

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The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases – RL31967

Congress has always restricted federal debt. The Second Liberty Bond Act of 1917 included an aggregate limit on federa

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LIHEAP: Program and Funding – RL31865

The Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), esta

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Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2015 – RL30857

Each new House elects a Speaker by roll call vote when it first convenes. Customarily, the conference of each

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Prescription Drug Discount Coupons: Implications for Public and Commercial Health Care Plans – R44264

U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers offer co-payment coupons to consumers with

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Veterans Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet – R44263

Veterans Day is a federal holiday honoring people who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces. It is recognized annually on November 11.

This guide is designed to assist congressional offices with work related to celebrating Veterans Day. I

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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): Appropriations and the FY2016 Budget Request – R44262

The […]

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act (NAHASDA): Issues and Reauthorization Legislation in the 114th Congress – R44261

The Nati

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Social Security and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Provisions in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 – R44250

Title VIII of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (H.R. 1314, P.L. 114-74) makes several changes to the Social Security programs. Among these changes is a temporary reallocation of the Social Security […]

Speechwriting Resources: Fact Sheet – R44239

As elected officials and leaders, Senators and Representatives are frequently called upon to deliver speeches an

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Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation Bill (H.R. 3762) – R44238

The FY2016 budget resolution (S.Con.Res. 11) established the congressional budget for the federal government for FY2016 and set forth budgetary levels for FY2017-FY2025. It also included reconciliation instructions for House and

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Columbus Day: Fact Sheet – R44218

Columbus Day is a […]

Patriot Day: Fact Sheet – R44178

In 2001, P.L. 107-89 designated September 11 as Patriot Day to honor the individuals who lost their lives as a result of

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Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 (PCNA and NCPAA) and S. 754 (CISA) – R44069

Effective sharing of information in cybersecurity is generally considered an important tool for protecting information systems from unauthorized access. Five bills on such sharing have been introduced in the 114th Congress—H.R. 234, H.R. 1

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The Future of Internet Governance: Should the United States Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN? – R44022

Currently, the U.S. government retains limited authority over the Internet’s domain name system, primarily through the […]

EPA and the Army Corps’ “Waters of the United States” Rule: Congressional Response and Options – R43943

On May 27, 2015, the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a rule revising regulations that define the scope of waters protected under the […]

Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”) – R43510

The Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-295), signed into law on December 19, 2014, made tax provisions that had expired at the end of 2013 available to taxpayers for the 2014 tax year. The law extended most (but not all) provisions th

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The Debt Limit Since 2011 – R43389

The Constitution grants Congress the power to borrow money on the credit of the United States— one part of its power of the purse—and thus mandates that Congress exercise control over […]

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (NAHASDA): Background and Funding – R43307

Native Americans living in […]

U.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues – R43291

“Services” refers to a growing range of economic activities, such as audiovisual; construction; computer and related services; energy; express delivery; e-commerce; financial; professional (such as accounting and legal services); ret

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Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act – R43289

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Pat

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The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation – R43210

Even today, after the passage of some three decades, the 1979-1981 Iran Hostage Crisis remains an event

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Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification – R42405

As a major energy consumer, Europe faces a number of challenges in addressing future energy needs. Among these challenges are rapidly rising global demand and competition for energy resources from countries such as China and India, tensions with

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Everglades Restoration: Federal Funding and Implementation Progress – R42007

The Everglades is a unique network of subtropical wetlands in South Florida that is approximately half of its historical size, due in part to degradation from federal water projects. In 2000, Congress authorized a plan, termed the

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Apportioning Seats in the U.S. House of Representatives Using the 2013 Estimated Citizen Population – R41636

Congressional apportionment is the process of determining th

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The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions – R41219

The United States and Russia signed the New START Treaty on April 8, 2010. After more than 20 hearings, the U.S. Senate gave

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Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress – R41129

The Navy’s proposed FY2016 budget requests $1,390.7 million for continued research and development work on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (

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The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress – R40977

The Group of Twenty (G-20) is a forum for advancing international cooperation and coordination among 20 major advanced and emerging-m

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Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: A Historical Perspective – R40431

P.L. 112-141, the Moving Ahead for Progress in t

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Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress – RS22942

The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is being developed by the Army and the Marine

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Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics – RS22380

The Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (

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U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Recent Conflicts – RS21405

Many wars or conflicts in U.S. history have federally designated “periods of war,” dates marking their beginning and ending. These dates are important for qualification for certain veterans’ pension or disability benefits. Conf

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The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases – RL31967

Congress has always restricted federal debt. The Second Liberty Bond Act of 1917 included an aggregate limit on federa

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Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2015 – RL30567

This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each.

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Impeachment and Removal – R44260

The impeachment process provides a mechanism for removal of the President, Vice President, and other “civil Officers of the United States” found to have engaged in “treason, bribery, or other […]

Is Violent Crime in the United States Increasing? – R44259

On August 31, 2015, the New York Times ran an article with the headline […]

Native American Heritage Month: Fact Sheet – R44258

Native American Heritage Month (also known as […]